Queen Elizabeth Biography

Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) reigned over the United Kingdom and 14 other sovereign countries from the 6th of February 1952 until the day she passed away. Elizabeth II’s full name was Elizabeth Alexandra Mary. The longest reign ever held by a British monarch was 70 years and seven months, which she achieved.

Elizabeth was the first child to be born to the Duke and Duchess of York, who would later become King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She was born in Mayfair, which is located in London. Elizabeth is the heir apparent due to the fact that her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 after his brother, King Edward VIII, abdicated the throne. This made Elizabeth the monarch at the time. She received her formal education in the comfort of her own home and began her involvement in public service during the Second World War when she joined the Auxiliary Territorial Service. She wed Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, in November 1947, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in April 2021. During that time, she raised three children and became a member of the British royal family. They were blessed with four children: Charles, who would later become King of the United Kingdom; Anne, who would become Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, who would become Duke of York; and Prince Edward, who would become Earl of Wessex.

After her father passed away in February of 1952, Elizabeth, who was 25 years old at the time, became the queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Ceylon (now known as Sri Lanka). She also assumed the role of Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth’s reign as constitutional monarch took place during a time of significant political upheaval, including the Troubles in Northern Ireland, devolution in the United Kingdom, the decolonization of Africa, and the United Kingdom’s accession to the European Communities as well as its withdrawal from the European Union. The number of her realms fluctuated over the course of her reign because some of her realms became republics, and other territories gained their independence. Her many historic trips and meetings include state visits to China in 1986, Russia in 1994, and the Republic of Ireland in 2011. She also met with or received visits from five popes during her time abroad.

The coronation of Elizabeth as Queen in 1953, as well as the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively, are significant events. Elizabeth was the monarch of the United Kingdom who lived the longest and reigned the longest. She was also the oldest and longest-serving incumbent head of state, and she held the record for the second-longest verifiable reign as a sovereign monarch in the history of the world. She had to contend with occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family, particularly after the dissolution of her children’s marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the passing of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997. Despite this, people in the United Kingdom have maintained their strong support for the monarchy, and Queen Elizabeth II continues to enjoy a high level of personal popularity. On September 8, 2022, Elizabeth passed away.

Early life

Elizabeth was born on April 21, 1926, at 2:40 a.m., Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). This was during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, the Duke of York, who would later become King George VI, was the King’s second son. She was named after him. Her mother, the Duchess of York, later became Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. The Duchess of York was the youngest daughter of the Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, at whose London home (17 Bruton Street, Mayfair) the Queen was born via Caesarean section. Her mother was the Duchess of York. On May 29th, she was christened in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang. She was given the names Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after her paternal great-grandmother who had passed away six months earlier, and Mary after her paternal grandmother. Her baptism was performed by the Anglican Archbishop of York. [6] She was cherished by her grandfather, George V, whom she affectionately called “Grandpa England,” and her regular visits during his serious illness in 1929 were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and helping him recover. She was called “Lilibet” by her close family, based on what she called herself at first.

Princess Margaret, Elizabeth’s only sibling, was born the same year as Elizabeth, in 1930. The two princesses received their education in the comfort of their own home under the watchful eye of their mother as well as the guidance of their governess, Marion Crawford. The subjects of history, language, and literature as well as music were the primary focuses of the lessons. The royal family was very upset when Crawford published The Little Princesses in 1950, which was a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret’s childhood years. The book was titled “The Little Princesses.”  The book gives an account of Elizabeth’s love for canines and horses, as well as her meticulousness and sense of responsibility. Similar observations were made by others, including When Elizabeth was only two years old, Winston Churchill referred to her as “a character. She exudes an air of authority, and her reflectiveness is quite remarkable for such a young child. Margaret Rhodes, her cousin, once referred to her as “a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.”

Heir presumptive

During the time that her grandfather was monarch of the United Kingdom, Elizabeth was the third person in line to succeed to the throne, after her father, her uncle Edward, and her father. Although her birth piqued the interest of the public, it was not anticipated that she would one day become queen. Edward was still a young man and it was anticipated that he would eventually get married and have children of his own, who would come before Elizabeth in the line of succession. She became second in line to the throne after her father after her grandfather passed away in 1936 and her uncle became King Edward VIII. Her father was the first in line. In the latter part of that year, Edward abdicated as a result of the constitutional crisis that was caused by his proposed marriage to the divorced socialite Wallis Simpson. As a consequence of this, Elizabeth’s father became king and assumed the regnal name George VI. Because Elizabeth did not have any brothers, she was designated as the heir apparent. At the time, male-preference primogeniture dictated the order of succession, so if her parents had gone on to have another child, a son, he would have been placed ahead of her in the line of succession. He would have been the heir apparent.

Elizabeth was given private instruction in constitutional history by Henry Marten, who was the Vice-Provost of Eton College. She also learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.    A Girl Guides company called the 1st Buckingham Palace Company was formed specifically so that she could socialize with girls her own age. After some time had passed, she became a Sea Ranger.

In 1939, Elizabeth’s parents went on a vacation throughout the United States and Canada. As was the case in 1927, when the family traveled throughout Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in the United Kingdom because her father believed that she was still too young to participate in public tours. As her parents drove away, she “appeared tearful” and sad. They wrote to one another on a regular basis, and on May 18th, she made the first royal telephone call across the Atlantic Ocean with her parents.

Accession to the throne

The health of King George VI began to rapidly deteriorate during the summer of 1951, and as a result, Princess Elizabeth stood in for him at the Trooping the Colour and on a number of other state occasions. She and her husband embarked on a highly successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. on October 7th, the first day of their trip. After spending Christmas in England, she and the duke set out in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. However, while they were in Sagana, Kenya, on February 6, 1952, the news that the king had passed away reached them. After she was crowned queen, Elizabeth wasted no time in returning to England. She spent the first three months of her reign, which coincided with the period of full mourning for her father, in relatively isolated quarters. But during the summer, after she had relocated from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace, she began performing the routine duties of the sovereign. On November 4, 1952, she presided over her first state opening of Parliament. This was after she had moved from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace. The ceremony that crowned her queen took place at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953.

The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh embarked on a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth beginning in November 1953. This tour included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. Other countries that were visited on this trip include Canada, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands. In 1957, following official trips to a number of countries across Europe, she and the Duke of Windsor traveled to Canada and the United States. In 1961, she embarked on the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in the previous half-century. She was also the first reigning monarch of the United Kingdom to travel to South America (1968) and the countries of the Persian Gulf (1961). (in 1979). During her “Silver Jubilee” in 1977, she traveled all over Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as overseas to the South Pacific and Australia, Canada, and the Caribbean. She also presided over a banquet in London that was attended by the heads of state of all 36 Commonwealth nations.

Prince Charles, the son of Queen Elizabeth, became the apparent heir to the throne upon his mother’s accession to the throne. He was given the title of prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and he was invested in that role on July 1, 1969. Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, was elevated to the position of Princess Royal in 1987. Prince Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), born February 19, 1960, was elevated to the position of Duke of York in 1986. Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, was elevated to the position of Earl of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999. Although all of these children were given the surname “of Windsor,” Queen Elizabeth II made the decision in 1960 to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants who were not styled prince or princess and royal highness. On November 15, 1977, Elizabeth welcomed her first grandchild, a son by Princess Anne. He was Elizabeth’s first grandchild.

Marriage